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Ciarallo L, Brousseau D, Reinert S. Higher-dose intravenous magnesium therapy for children with moderate to severe acute asthma. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000;154:979-83.

Clague JE, Edwards RH, Jackson MJ. Intravenous magnesium loading in chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1992;340:124-5.

Cohen JS. High-dose oral magnesium treatment of chronic, intractable erythromelalgia. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:255-60.

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Costello RB, Moser-Veillon PB, DiBianco R. Magnesium supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:22-31.

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Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson D. Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1991;337:757-60.

Crosby V, Wilcock A, Corcoran R. The safety and efficacy of a single dose (500 mg or 1 g) of intravenous magnesium sulfate in neuropathic pain poorly responsive to strong opioid analgesics in patients with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;19:35-9.

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Doyle LW, et al. Effect of magnesium sulfate given for neuroprotection before preterm birth: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290:2669-76.

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Doyle LW. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;4:CD001060.

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Cundy T, Mackay J. Proton pump inhibitors and severe hypomagnesaemia. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2011;27:180-5.

Dahle LO, Berg G, Hammar M, et al. The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg cramps. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:175-80.

Davey MJ, Teubner D. A randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate, in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med 2005;45:347-53.

de Haan A, van Doorn JE, Westra HG. Effects of potassium plus magnesium aspartate on muscle metabolism and force development during short intensive static exercise. Int J Sports Med 1985;6:44-9.

De Leeuw I, Engelen W, De Block C, Van Gaal L. Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm). Magnes Res 2004;17:109-14.

de Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJ, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1998;15:503-7.

Demirkaya S, Dora B, Topcuoglu MA, et al. A comparative study of magnesium, flunarizine and amitriptyline in the prophylaxis of migraine. J Headache Pain 2000;1:179-86.

Deulofeu R, Gascon J, Gimenez N, Corachan M. Magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1991;338:641.

Dickinson HO, Nicolson DJ, Campbell F, et al. Magnesium supplementation for the management of essential hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD004640.

Doornebal J, Bijlsma R, Brouwer RM. [An unknown but potentially serious side effect of proton pump inhibitors: hypomagnesaemia]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2009;153:A711.

Douban S, Brodsky MA, Whang DD, Whang R. Significance of magnesium in congestive heart failure. Am Heart J 1996;132:664-71.

Dunn CJ, Goa KL. Risedronate: a review of its pharmacological properties and clinical use in resorptive bone disease. Drugs 2001;61:685-712.

Durlach J, Bac P, Durlach V, et al. Magnesium status and ageing: an update. Magnes Res 1998;11:25-42.

Ehrenpreis ED, Wieland JM, Cabral J, et al. Symptomatic hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyperphosphatemia sceondary to Fleet’s Phospho-Soda colonoscopy preparation in a patient with a jejunoileal bypass. Dig Dis Sci 1997;42:858-60.

Eibl NL, Kopp HP, Nowak HR, et al. Hypomagnesemia in type II diabetes: effect of a 3-month replacement therapy. Diabetes Care 1995;18:188-92.

Epstein M, McGrath S, Law F. Proton-pump inhibitors and hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1834-6.

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Ettinger B, Citron JT, Livermore B, Dolman LI. Chlorthanlidone reduces calcium oxalate calculous recurrence but magnesium hydroxide does not. J Urol 1988;139:679-84.

Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:177-81.

Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991;31:298-301.

Fakih M. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody-induced hypomagnesaemia. Lancet Oncol 2007;8:366-7.

Faulhaber GA, Furlanetto TW. Could magnesium depletion play a role on fracture risk in PPI users? Arch Intern Med 2010;170:1776.

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Fernández-Fernández FJ, Sesma P, Caínzos-Romero T, Ferreira-González L. Intermittent use of pantoprazole and famotidine in severe hypomagnesaemia due to omeprazole. Neth J Med 2010;68:329-30.

Fine KD, Santa Ana CA, Porter JL, et al. Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements. J Clin Invest 1991;88:396-402.

Firoz M, Graber M. Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations. Magnes Res 2001;14:257-62.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999. Available at:

Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults. J Nutr 2003;133:2879-82.

François M, Lévy-Bohbot N, Caron J, Durlach V. [Chronic use of proton-pump inhibitors associated with giardiasis: A rare cause of hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism?]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2008;69:446-8.

Frankel BL, Patten BM, Gillin JC. Restless leg syndrome. Sleep-electroencephalographic and neurologic findings. JAMA 1974;230:1302-3.

Fukumoto S, Matsumoto T, Tanaka Y, et al. Renal magnesium wasting in a patient with short bowel syndrome with magnesium deficiency: effect of 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65:1301-4.

Fung TT, Manson JE, Solomon CG, et al. The association between magnesium intake and fasting insulin concentration in healthy middle-aged women. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22:533-8.

Galland L. Magnesium and inflammatory bowel disease. Magnesium 1988;7:78-83.

Galloe AM, Rasmussen HS, Jorgensen LN, et al. Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction. BMJ 1993;307:585-7.

Gantz NM. Magnesium and chronic fatigue. Lancet 1991;338:66.

Gearhart MO, Sorg TB. Foscarnet-induced severe hypomagnesemia and other electrolyte disturbances. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:285-9.

Geerling BJ, Badart-Smook A, Stockbrugger RW, Brummer RJ. Comprehensive nutritional status in patients with long-standing Crohn disease currently in remission. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:919-26.

Golf SW, Bender S, Gruttner J. On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1998;12:197-202.

Golf SW, Happel O, Graef V, Seim KE. Plasma aldosterone, cortisol and electrolyte concentrations in physical exercise after magnesium supplementation. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1984;22:717-21.

Gottlieb SS. Importance of magnesium in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:39G-42G.

Gradon JD, Fricchione L, Sepkowitz D. Severe hypomagnesemia associated with pentamidine therapy. Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:511-2.

Grether JK, Hoogstrate J, Walsh-Greene E, Nelson KB. Magnesium sulfate for tocolysis and risk of spastic cerebral palsy in premature children born to women without preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:717-25.

Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. Complementary therapies for diabetes: the case for chromium, magnesium, and antioxidants. Arch Med Res 2005;36:250-7.

Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. Low serum magnesium levels and metabolic syndrome. Acta Diabetol 2002;39:209-13.

Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. Relationship between serum magnesium levels and C-reactive protein concentration, in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive obese subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:469-74.

Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez HE, Gonzalez-Gonzalez G, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Diabetes Metab 2004;30:253-8.

Gullestad L, Jacobsen T, Dolva LO. Effect of magnesium treatment on glycemic control and metabolic parameters in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1994;17:460-1

Gustafson T, Boman K, Rosenhall L, et al. Skeletal muscle magnesium and potassium in asthmatics treated with oral beta-2-agonists. Eur Resp J 1996;9:237-40.

Hagan RD, Upton SJ, Duncan JJ, et al. Absence of effect of potassium-magnesium aspartate on physiologic responses to prolonged work in aerobically trained men. Int J Sports Med 1982;3:177-81.

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Hanus M, Lafon J, Mathieu M. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed combination containing two plant extracts (Crataegus oxyacantha and Eschscholtzia californica) and magnesium in mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:63-71.

Hardwick LL, Jones MR, Brautbar N, Lee DB. Magnesium absorption: mechanisms and the influence of vitamin D, calcium and phosphate. J Nutr 1991;121:13-23.

He K, Liu K, Daviglus ML, et al. Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults. Circulation 2006;113:1675-82.

Heidenreich O. Mode of action of conventional and potassium-sparing diuretics–aspects with relevance to Mg-sparing effects. Magnesium 1984;3:248-56.

Hill J, Micklewright A, Lewis S, et al. Investigation of the effect of short-term change in dietary magnesium intake in asthma. Eur Respir J 1997;10:2225-9.

Hinds G, Bell NP, McMaster D, McCluskey DR. Normal red cell magnesium concentrations and magnesium loading tests in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Clin Biochem 1994;31:459-61.

Hirschel-Scholz S, Paunier L, Bonjour JP. Interference of WR-2721 with magnesium metabolism: mechanism of action. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1988;14:114-20.

Hollifield JW. Magnesium depletion, diuretics, and arrhythmias. Am J Med 1987;82:30-7.

Hoogerbrugge N, Cobbaert C, de Heide L, et al. Oral physiological magnesium supplementation for 6 weeks with 1 g/d magnesium oxide does not affect increased Lp(a) levels in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Magnes Res 1996;9:129-32.

Hoorn EJ, van der Hoek J, de Man RA, et al. A case series of proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;56:112-6.

Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, et al. Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study. Sleep 1998;21:501-5.

Houtkooper LB, Ritenbaugh C, Aickin M, et al. Nutrients, body composition and exercise are related to change in bone mineral density in premenopausal women. J Nutr 1995;125:1229-37.

Huerta MG, Roemmich JN, Kington ML, et al. Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1175-81.

Ilich JZ, Kerstetter JE. Nutrition in bone health revisited: a story beyond calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:715-37.

Iseri LT, Fairshter RD, Hardemann JL, Brodsky MA. Magnesium and potassium therapy in multifocal atrial tachycardia. Am Heart J 1985;110:789-94.

Jee SH, Miller ER 3rd, Guallar E, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Am J Hypertens 2002;15:691-6.

Jeyabalan A, Caritis SN. Pharmacologic inhibition of preterm labor. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2002;45:99-113.

Johansson G, Backman U, Danielson BG, et al. Biochemical and clinical effects of the prophylactic treatment of renal calcium stones with magnesium hydroxide. J Urol 1980;124:770–4.

Johnson S. The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Med Hypotheses 2001;56:163-70.

Kass L, Weekes J, Carpenter L. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. 2012. Epub 2012 Feb 8:1-8.

Khilnani G, Parchani H, Toshniwal G. Hypomagnesemia due to beta 2-agonist use in bronchial asthma. J Assoc Physicians India 1992;40:346.

King DE, Mainous AG 3rd, Geesey ME, Woolson RF. Dietary magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. J Am Coll Nutr 2005;24:166-71.

Kleeman CR, Levi J, Better O. Kidney and adrenocortical hormones. Nephron 1975;15:261-78.

Kosch M, Hausberg M, Westermann G, et al. Alterations in calcium and magnesium content of red cell membranes in patients with primary hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2001;14:254-8.

Kozeny GA, Nicolas JD, Creekmore S, et al. Effects of interleukin-2 immunotherapy on renal function. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1170-6.

Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B. Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Magnes Res 1997;10:143-8.

Krejs GJ, Nicar MJ, Zerwekh JE, et al. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on calcium and magnesium absorption in the healthy human jejunum and ileum. Am J Med 1983;75:973-6.

Kuipers MT, Thang HD, Arntzenius AB. Hypomagnesaemia due to use of proton pump inhibitors–a review. Neth J Med 2009;67:169-72.

L’Hommedieu CS, Nicholas D, Armes DA, et al. Potentiation of magnesium sulfate–induced neuromuscular weakness by gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin. J Pediatr 1983;102:629-31.

Larsson SC, Wolk A. Magnesium intake and risk of type-2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Intern Med 2007:262:208-14.

Lasserre B, Spoerri M, Moullet V, et al. Should magnesium therapy be considered for the treatment of coronary heart disease? II. Epidemiological evidence in outpatients with and without coronary heart disease. Magnes Res 1994;7:145-53.

Li MK, Blacklock NJ, Garside J. Effects of magnesium on calcium oxalate crystallization. J Urol 1985;133:23.

Lichodziejewska B, Klos J, Rezler J, et al. Clinical symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are related to hypomagnesemia and attenuated by magnesium supplementation. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:768-72.

Lima M, Cruz T, Pousada JC, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:682-6.

Lipworth BJ, McDevitt DG. Beta-adrenoceptor responses to inhaled salbutamol in normal subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989;36:239-45.

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Lote CJ, Thewles A, Wood JA, Zafar T. The hypomagnesaemic action of FK506: urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium and the role of parathyroid hormone. Clin Sci 2000;99:285-92.

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Magnesium in Coronaries (MAGIC) Trial Investigators. Early administration of intravenous magnesium to high-risk patients with acute myocardial infarction in the Magnesium in Coronaries (MAGIC) Trial: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:1189-96.

Maizels M, Blumenfeld A, Burchette R. A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial. Headache 2004;44:885-90.

Martin M, Diaz-Rubio E, Casado A, et al. Intravenous and oral magnesium supplementation in the prophylaxis of cisplatin-induced hypomagnesemia. Results of a controlled trial. Am J Clin Oncol 1992;15:348-51

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Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, et al. Deficiency in serum ionized magnesium but not total magnesium in patients with migraines. Possible role of ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio. Headache 1993;33:135-8.

Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulfate relieves cluster headaches in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels. Headache 1995;35:597-600.

McCarty MF. Magnesium may mediate the favorable impact of whole grains on insulin sensitivity by acting as a mild calcium antagonist. Med Hypotheses 2005;64:619-27.

McCord JK, Borzak S, Davis T, Gheorghiade M. Usefulness of intravenous magnesium for multifocal atrial tachycardia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Cardiol 1998;81:91-3.

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