2. Magnesium
Abraham GE, Grewal H. A total dietary program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium. Effect on the mineral density of calcaneous bone in postmenopausal women on hormonal therapy. J Reprod Med 1990;35:503-7.

Allen RD, Hunnisett AG, Morris PJ. Cyclosporine and magnesium. Lancet 1985;1:1283-4.

Altman D, Carroli G, Duley L, et al. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359:1877-90.

Altura BT, Memon ZI, Zhang A, et al. Low levels of serum ionized magnesium are found in patients early after stroke which result in rapid elevation in cytosolic free calcium and spasm in cerebral vascular muscle cells. Neurosci Lett 1997;230:37-40.

Anderson PO, Knoben JE, Troutman WG. Handbook of Clinical Drug Data. 9th ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.

Anderson PO, Knoben JE. Handbook of Clinical Drug Data. 8th ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1997.

Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, et al. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 1998;98:1198-204.

Attias J, Weisz G, Almog S, et al. Oral magnesium intake reduces permanent hearing loss induced by noise exposure. Am J Otolaryngol 1994;15:26-32.

Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ, Galioto A, et al. Role of magnesium in insulin action, diabetes and cardio-metabolic syndrome X. Mol Aspects Med 2003;24:39-52.

Belfort MA, Anthony J, Saade GR, Allen JC Jr. A comparison of magnesium sulfate and nimodipine for the prevention of eclampsia. N Engl J Med 2003;348:304-11.

Bendich A. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. J Am Coll Nutrition 2000;19:3-12.

Bhargava B, Chandra S, Agarwal VV, et al. Adjunctive magnesium infusion therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol 1995;52:95-9.

Birrer RB, Shallash AJ, Totten V. Hypermagnesemia-induced fatality following epsom salt gargles. J Emerg Med 2002;22:185-8.

Bos WJ, Postma DS, van Doormaal JJ. Magnesiuric and calciuric effects of terbutaline in man. Clin Sci 1988;74:595-7.

Bremme K, Eneroth P, Nordstrom L, Nilsson B. Effects of infusion of the beta-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline on serum magnesium in pregnant women. Magnesium 1986;5:85-94.

Brodsky MA, Orlov MV, Capparelli EV, et al. Magnesium therapy in new-onset atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:1227-9.

Broeren MA, Geerdink EA, Vader HL, van den Wall Bake AW. Hypomagnesemia induced by several proton-pump inhibitors. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:755-6.

Burnett RJ, Reents SB. Severe hypomagnesemia induced by pentamidine. DICP Ann Pharmacother 1990;24:239-40.

Cantilena LR, Klaassen CD. The effect of chelating agents on the excretion of endogenous metals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1982;63:344-50.

Ceremuzynski L, Gebalska J, Wolk R, Makowska E. Hypomagnesemia in heart failure with ventricular arrhythmias. Beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation. J Intern Med 2000;247:78-86.

Charles P, Mosekilde L, Sondergard K, Jensen FT. Treatment with high-dose oral vitamin D2 in patients with jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Effects on calcium and magnesium metabolism, vitamin D metabolites and faecal lag time. Scand J Gastroenterol 1984;19:1031-8.

Chiuve SE, Korngold EC, Januzzi JL Jr, et al. Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93(2):253-60..

Christiansen EH, Frost L, Andreasen F, et al. Dose-related cardiac electrophysiological effects of intravenous magnesium. A double-blind placebo-controlled dose-response study in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Europace 2000;2:320-6.

Ciarallo L, Brousseau D, Reinert S. Higher-dose intravenous magnesium therapy for children with moderate to severe acute asthma. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000;154:979-83.

Clague JE, Edwards RH, Jackson MJ. Intravenous magnesium loading in chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1992;340:124-5.

Cohen JS. High-dose oral magnesium treatment of chronic, intractable erythromelalgia. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:255-60.

Cohen N, Almoznino-Sarafian D, Zaidenstein R, et al. Serum magnesium aberrations in furosemide (frusemide) treated patients with congestive heart failure: pathophysiological correlates and prognostic evaluation. Heart 2003;89:411-6.

Costello RB, Moser-Veillon PB, DiBianco R. Magnesium supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:22-31.

Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996.

Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson D. Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1991;337:757-60.

Crosby V, Wilcock A, Corcoran R. The safety and efficacy of a single dose (500 mg or 1 g) of intravenous magnesium sulfate in neuropathic pain poorly responsive to strong opioid analgesics in patients with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;19:35-9.

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Doyle LW, et al. Effect of magnesium sulfate given for neuroprotection before preterm birth: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290:2669-76.

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Doyle LW. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;4:CD001060.

Cundy T, Dissanayake A. Severe hypomagnesaemia in long-term users of proton-pump inhibitors. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008;69:338-41.

Cundy T, Mackay J. Proton pump inhibitors and severe hypomagnesaemia. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2011;27:180-5.

Dahle LO, Berg G, Hammar M, et al. The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg cramps. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:175-80.

Davey MJ, Teubner D. A randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate, in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med 2005;45:347-53.

de Haan A, van Doorn JE, Westra HG. Effects of potassium plus magnesium aspartate on muscle metabolism and force development during short intensive static exercise. Int J Sports Med 1985;6:44-9.

De Leeuw I, Engelen W, De Block C, Van Gaal L. Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm). Magnes Res 2004;17:109-14.

de Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJ, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1998;15:503-7.

Demirkaya S, Dora B, Topcuoglu MA, et al. A comparative study of magnesium, flunarizine and amitriptyline in the prophylaxis of migraine. J Headache Pain 2000;1:179-86.

Deulofeu R, Gascon J, Gimenez N, Corachan M. Magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1991;338:641.

Dickinson HO, Nicolson DJ, Campbell F, et al. Magnesium supplementation for the management of essential hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD004640.

Doornebal J, Bijlsma R, Brouwer RM. [An unknown but potentially serious side effect of proton pump inhibitors: hypomagnesaemia]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2009;153:A711.

Douban S, Brodsky MA, Whang DD, Whang R. Significance of magnesium in congestive heart failure. Am Heart J 1996;132:664-71.

Dunn CJ, Goa KL. Risedronate: a review of its pharmacological properties and clinical use in resorptive bone disease. Drugs 2001;61:685-712.

Durlach J, Bac P, Durlach V, et al. Magnesium status and ageing: an update. Magnes Res 1998;11:25-42.

Ehrenpreis ED, Wieland JM, Cabral J, et al. Symptomatic hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyperphosphatemia sceondary to Fleet’s Phospho-Soda colonoscopy preparation in a patient with a jejunoileal bypass. Dig Dis Sci 1997;42:858-60.

Eibl NL, Kopp HP, Nowak HR, et al. Hypomagnesemia in type II diabetes: effect of a 3-month replacement therapy. Diabetes Care 1995;18:188-92.

Epstein M, McGrath S, Law F. Proton-pump inhibitors and hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1834-6.

Erbitux (cetuximab) product information. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ. May 2007.

Ettinger B, Citron JT, Livermore B, Dolman LI. Chlorthanlidone reduces calcium oxalate calculous recurrence but magnesium hydroxide does not. J Urol 1988;139:679-84.

Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:177-81.

Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991;31:298-301.

Fakih M. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody-induced hypomagnesaemia. Lancet Oncol 2007;8:366-7.

Faulhaber GA, Furlanetto TW. Could magnesium depletion play a role on fracture risk in PPI users? Arch Intern Med 2010;170:1776.

FDA. Dietary Supplement Enforcement Report July 2003. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/oc/whitepapers/chbn_summary.html

Fernández-Fernández FJ, Sesma P, Caínzos-Romero T, Ferreira-González L. Intermittent use of pantoprazole and famotidine in severe hypomagnesaemia due to omeprazole. Neth J Med 2010;68:329-30.

Fine KD, Santa Ana CA, Porter JL, et al. Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements. J Clin Invest 1991;88:396-402.

Firoz M, Graber M. Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations. Magnes Res 2001;14:257-62.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309063507/html/index.html.

Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults. J Nutr 2003;133:2879-82.

François M, Lévy-Bohbot N, Caron J, Durlach V. [Chronic use of proton-pump inhibitors associated with giardiasis: A rare cause of hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism?]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2008;69:446-8.

Frankel BL, Patten BM, Gillin JC. Restless leg syndrome. Sleep-electroencephalographic and neurologic findings. JAMA 1974;230:1302-3.

Fukumoto S, Matsumoto T, Tanaka Y, et al. Renal magnesium wasting in a patient with short bowel syndrome with magnesium deficiency: effect of 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65:1301-4.

Fung TT, Manson JE, Solomon CG, et al. The association between magnesium intake and fasting insulin concentration in healthy middle-aged women. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22:533-8.

Galland L. Magnesium and inflammatory bowel disease. Magnesium 1988;7:78-83.

Galloe AM, Rasmussen HS, Jorgensen LN, et al. Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction. BMJ 1993;307:585-7.

Gantz NM. Magnesium and chronic fatigue. Lancet 1991;338:66.

Gearhart MO, Sorg TB. Foscarnet-induced severe hypomagnesemia and other electrolyte disturbances. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:285-9.

Geerling BJ, Badart-Smook A, Stockbrugger RW, Brummer RJ. Comprehensive nutritional status in patients with long-standing Crohn disease currently in remission. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:919-26.

Golf SW, Bender S, Gruttner J. On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1998;12:197-202.

Golf SW, Happel O, Graef V, Seim KE. Plasma aldosterone, cortisol and electrolyte concentrations in physical exercise after magnesium supplementation. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1984;22:717-21.

Gottlieb SS. Importance of magnesium in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:39G-42G.

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